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They are supported by a skeleton made up of the protein collagen and spicules, which may be calcareous or siliceous, depending on the group of sponges examined. Soleneiscus radovani; S. Grantiopsis heroni; B. Sycon capricorn; l. Lemon-sponge (Leucetta chagosensis). cf. (Barnes, 1987; Brusca and Brusca, 2003), Most all sponges can reproduce asexually, by regenerating tissues. Sponge species may be most readily identified by examining their spicules under a … Calcarea are regarded as one of four classes of the phylum Porifera (three extant [Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, Cal carea] and one fossil [Archaeocyatha]), distinctive in possessing a spicule skeleton composed exclusively of calcium carbonate and being the only poriferan taxon realizing all three stages of development of the aquiferous system (asconoid-syconoid-leuconoid). Class Calcarea includes sponges that are small in size and less colorful than other sponge classes. Comparisons of calcareous sponge spicules with the amorphous silica spicules of sponges of the classes Hexactinellida and Demospongiae, as well as with calcitic skeletal elements of echinoderms are drawn. Unlike the other two groups of sponges, they include both asconoid and synconoid members. (Wörheide, 2002), Calcarea sponges are found throughout the oceans, but are mainly in temperate areas. The majority of modern spiculate cal-careans would be found as dissociated spicules in the fossil record; there is only one record from the middle Jurassic at King's Sutton, Northamptonshire, where the form and arrangement of a calcareous sponge was preserved (Leucandra walfordi Hinde, 1893). They form the basis for rich communities of other invertebrates, plants, fish, and protists. Calcarea or Calcareous Sponges. But in Demospongiae it is derived from a stage termed a rhagon which in turn arises by direct rearrangement of the inner cell mass. Kingdom: Anamalia Phylum: periphera Order: clathrinda Class: calcarea. n. pl. All three sponge body plans are represented within class Calcarea : asconoid, syconoid, and leuconoid. Like all other sponges, they are sedentary filter feeders. Calcareous sponges only reach about six inches in height. All three sponge body plans are represented within class Calcarea : asconoid, syconoid, and leuconoid. Calcareous Sponges. These groups are Hexactinellida(glass sponges), Demospongia, and Calcarea(calcareous sponges). (Brusca and Brusca, 2003), Sponges are preyed on by many animals. Calcareous sponges occur mainly on the rocky bottoms of the continental shelves in temperate, shallow waters; they are usually dull in colour. Class Calcarea was elevated to phylum status ("Calcispongia," a term that was already used in the mid-nineteenth century) (Zrzavy, et al., 1998; Borchiellini, et al., 2001), but as yet without robust statistical support (e.g., Medina, et al., 2001). They are usually found in shallow water, though one species has been found at a depth of 4000 meters. The class of calcareous sponges, Calcarea, includes 400, strictly marine species. Mulcrone, R. 2005. (Wörheide, 2002), Calcarea is the only class with asconoid and syconoid construction. It is the second largest ocean in the world after the Pacific Ocean. Sperm and eggs are released in the water, and most species cross fertilize. The sponges are sometimes associated with reefs in the Jurassic, or they may form widespread sponge … Other groups of sponges have microscleres, which are smaller reinforcing spicules. The larval stage has outer flagellated cells, often with spicules. Calcareous sponge, any of a class (Calcarea) of sponges characterized by skeletons composed entirely of calcium carbonate spicules (needlelike structures). Most Calcarea are 10 cm less in height, and are dull in color, although some colorful species are known. Calcareous sponges are mostly small and inconspicious; they occur in a variety of forms, as single tubes, sometimes vase shaped, a mass of small tubes ("cormus"), a bushy arrangement of single tubes, or sometimes massive without any apparent symmetry. Bruce Coleman, Inc. Reproduced by permission.). On the basis of the material they are formed of, spicules are of two types: Calcareous, made of calcium carbonate and characteristic of the class Calcarea and Siliceous, made of silica and characteristic of the class Hexactinellida. However, some sponges may move as amoeboid cells at the base move. Reproduction and Population Dynamics in the Calcareous Sponge, Leucetta losangelensis Dannielle Jensen, Amber M. Shows and Stephen M. Shuster Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona Abstract Leucetta losangelensis is a common intertidal calcareous sponge inhabiting the northern Gulf of California whose basic biology is poorly known.
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